This is a paint palette.
It is from Naukratis. A full palette had six dips, like this one, one for each of the basic pigments of red, yellow, blue, green, black and white. On the other side is one large paint dip, perhaps for use when drawing out a scene in red or black only. Paints were made from mineral pigments, most of which were found occuring naturally in Egypt. This is a paint palette. It is made from limestone. It is between 1,800 and 1,900 years old, dating to the Roman Period (101-200 CE).